Diabetes are chronic conditions of high prevalence that represent an important public health problem. No wonder food, lifestyle and medication for diabetes is most discussed topic.
Diabetes is a major modifiable risk factor for the development of Chronic Kidney Disease, also known as CKD.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 or, in short DM2 represents one of the main causes of Chronic Kidney Disease. It is also referred in general as Type 2 Diabetes or, in short T2D.
Given that Type 2 Diabetes is a risk factor for the development of Chronic Kidney Disease and that the prevalence of hidden or undiagnosed Chronic Kidney Disease is very high. It is recommended for all patients with T2D to perform clinical test of renal function at least once a year, by determining the Glomerular Filtration and the presence of proteins in the urine.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines diabetes as a chronic disease characterized by insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas or by the inefficient use of it by the body. If diabetes is not controlled, hyperglycemia or excess in blood sugar may develop.
The presence of proteins in the urine in the patient with diabetes, even with normal levels of GFR, is a potent indicator of progression of kidney disease and of mortal risk.
Diabetes Risk Factors
- Being overweight is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, you do not have to be overweight to develop type 2 diabetes.
- Arterial hypertension is a risk factor for kidney function, because it causes damage to the vasculature of the kidney.
- Distribution of fat is a good indicator of T2D. If fat mainly stored in the abdomen region, there is a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than if it’s stored, such as in the hips and thighs.
- Inactivity is another important factor. The less active you are, the more risk you will have of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
- Family background plays important role as well. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if your father, mother or brother has it.
- Age is another big factor. The risk increases as you get older, especially after turning 45. Probably, this may be because people, as they get older, tend to exercise less, become less active, therefore lose muscle and gain weight.
- Prediabetes is very less known, yet important factor. It is a disorder in which your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but it is not high enough to classify it as diabetes. If left untreated, prediabetes often progresses to become type 2 diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. If you gave birth to a baby over 9 lbs or about 4 kg, you also have the risk of having type 2 diabetes.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common disease for women characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excessive hair growth, fatigue and obesity, that too increases the risk of diabetes.
- Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck. This condition often indicates insulin resistance. In long term, this can lead to type 2 diabetes.